Monthly Archives: June 2015

New Slugs!

One of the members of the Washington DC Area Marine Aquarist Society (WAMAS) recently posted on the club forum that he had an outbreak of small slugs.  When I looked at the photos, I was pleased and amazed to see that his slugs looked like small Elysia.  Amazed because his was a traditional coral reef tank, which, given the hazardous pumps and lack of appropriate food, are not conducive to survival, much less propagation of Elysia.  Nonetheless, there they were.

Ryan, the slugs’ accidental owner was happy to meet up and hand off a few.  It took a few weeks to find the right time, but he gave me a baggie of six little slugs yesterday.  Meantime, most of the little guys had done what Elysia usually do in reef tanks, and had climbed or been blown into the filtration system to their doom.

Even a quick, unmagnified look at the slugs suggested that they were not the usual suspects (clarki, crispata, papillosa…).  Once under the microscope, they were clearly unlike the other species that I have either purchased or been lucky enough to obtain as hitchhikers on live plants.  They are quite small – about 7 mm – have reduced parapodia, stubby, tubular rhinophores, little white bumps, and squarish hearts.

Two unidentified Elysia.  Total magnification 70X.  6/28/15

Two unidentified Elysia. Total magnification 70X. 6/28/15

Unidentified Elysia.  Ruler shows how tiny the slug is.  6/28/15.

Unidentified Elysia. Ruler shows how tiny the slug is. 6/28/15.

Small unknown Elysia.  Each mark indicates 1 mm.  6/28/15

Small unknown Elysia. Each mark represents 1 mm. 6/28/15

They are now in the growout tank of the hatchery system, where I hope they will find a species of algae to their liking.  Of the species that fit the rough description on the Sea Slug Forum, Elysia serca, and Elysia flava, two western Atlantic species, or E. obtusa, from the Pacific seem, to be the closest fits.  However, none of them seems perfect.  The mystery species lacks the characteristic trio of white spots on the heart and parapodia of E. serca, as shown in the photo below, but the small body size, large head, and small rhinophores look like a fairly close match.  E. flava and E. obtusa appear much more translucent in photographs, but the pattern of white specs strongly resembles E. obtusa.  If they settle in and produce progeny, there should be some opportunities for proper analysis.

Elysia serca from the Sea Slug Forum

Elysia obtusa from the Sea Slug Forum

E. serca, feeds on seagrasses, such as Thalassia (turtle grass) and Halophila (tape grass), which are true vascular plants rather than the macroalgae that serve as food for most of the genus.  The food plants of the other two candidate species do not appear to be known.  In their new home, there are at least a half dozen species of macroalgae, plus some shoal grass plants (Halodule) that rode in with them, so there is a decent chance they will find something to eat.

It would all be made a lot easier if we knew where they came from.  As far as Ryan knew, no plants or macroalgae were placed into his system, so there is no obvious way for the slugs to have ridden into the tank. At this point, we don’t even know which ocean they came from.

Here’s a final look, in their new home. Will she thrive or fade?  We’ll see.

Mystery slug in growout tank.  6/29/15.

Mystery slug in growout tank. 6/29/15.

Going Old School

I have been using a variety of different lighting systems in the hatchery.  The Broodstock tank, with the adults, larger juveniles, and plentiful food, is lit with an old Coralife 2X55 watt compact fluorescent (CF) hood, whereas the growout tank has two 20-watt Marineland “Reef Capable” LED fixtures.  The macroalgae have been growing like weeds under the old Coralife fixture, whereas the Marineland fixture has not performed all that well.

I suspected that the problem was the spectrum produced by the LED lights.  Although many high-end LED systems contain red and far-red LEDs, the Marineland lights had arrays of blue and white LEDS, which produced very little red light.  On the other hand, “daylight” CF lamps produce light with a broader spectrum, including significant amounts of the red and blue needed by Elysia food plants.

The solution seemed obvious.  It is relatively easy and cheap to assemble CF fixtures using surplus ballasts, endcaps, clips and reflectors, so why not just build one?

Step 1 was to find the right parts, a wiring diagram for the ballast (in this case a Workhorse 5), and to make sure the parts still worked.  A quick and dirty assembly shows the ballast, lamps and endcaps are ready to go.

Do all the old parts work?

Do all the old parts work?

Next, it was time to cut an old reflector to the right length, and figure out the rough positions for everything.

Ready for soldering.

Ready for soldering.

Although wire nuts would be faster, soldering and shrink-tubing the connections seemed best, given the moist, splashy location.

Soldered, ready for final assembly.

Soldered, ready for final assembly.

All that remained was to secure the ballast, power cord, and the clips for the lamps (bulbs) to the reflector.  Bingo!  A new fixture that will produce a spectrum more appropriate for aquatic plants.

New compact fluorescent light, ready for installation.

New compact fluorescent light, ready for installation.

Frilly Slug Going Home

There has been a frilly sacoglossan (Cyerce?) in the growout tank, which presumably rode in with the last batch of algae.  In an effort to focus on E. clarki in the hatchery, and because there is probably another one of these guys remaining in Box of Slugs 2, she is getting moved home tonight.

Frilly sacoglossan 060115

Frilly sacoglossan 060115

Despite the utter failure of the environmental system at USG (temperature 28 – 30 degrees C over the past few days), the hatchery has muddled along.  Even got the first small batch of eggs from the second generation of E. clarki.  Thought it might be useful to start providing a sense of scale of these things.


First batch of eggs from the second generation.