Natural History

Something of a catch-all, comprising geographic distribution, reproduction, phylogeny, ecology, and other things that describe the natural biology of Elysia.

Dionisio, G., Faleiro, F; Bilan, M; Rosa, Ines C.; Pimentel, M (2017) Impact of climate change on the ontogenetic, development of ‘solar-powered’ sea slugs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 578: 87-97 [F] [NH] [Cl]

Gowacki, W.A., Bell, S.S., Pierce, S.K. (2016) Correcting taxonomic confusion for the kleptoplastic sea slug Elysia papillosa Verrill (1901) American Malacological Bulletin 2: 85-91 [NH] [Pa] [Pt]

Krug, P.J., Vendetti, J.E., Valdes, A. (2016) Molecular and morphological systematics of Elysia Risso, 1818 (Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa) from the Caribbean region. Zootaxa 4148: 1-137 [NH] Thorough analysis of Elysia, rendering many names used on this site obsolete.

de Sisto, M., Crescini, R., Villalba, W., Rios, B., Gomez, V., Mata, Y. (2016) Sacoglossans Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) from Nueva Esparta state and Los Frailes, Venezuela          .  Revista Mexicana De Biodiversidad 87: 42-48 [NH] [Ca] [Cr] [Pa] [Se] [Su]

Karagozlu, M.Z., Sung, J., Lee, J., Kwon, T., Kim, C.B. (2016) Complete mitochondrial genome sequences and phylogenetic relationship of Elysia ornata (Swainson, 1840) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Sacoglossa) Mitochondrial DNA Part B-Resources 1: 230-232 [NH] [Or]Baumgartner, F.A., Pavia, H., Toth, G.B. (2014) Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.  PLoS ONE, 9 (8), art. no. e102752 Abstract PDF [NH] [F] [Vi]

Baumgartner, F.A., Toth, G.B. (2014) Abundance and size distribution of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis on co-occurring algal hosts on the Swedish west coast. PLoS ONE, 9 (3), art. no. e92472, . Abstract PDF [Vi] [F] [NH]

Hernández-Almaraz, P., Méndez-Rodríguez, L., Zenteno-Savín, T., García-Domínguez, F., Vázquez-Botello, A., Serviere-Zaragoza, E. (2014) Metal mobility and bioaccumulation differences at lower trophic levels in marine ecosystems dominated by Sargassum species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 94 (3), pp. 435-442. Abstract [F] [NH] [Di]

Krug, P.J., Vendetti, J.E., Rodriguez, A.K., Retana, J.N., Hirano, Y.M., Trowbridge, C.D. (2013) Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 69 (3), pp. 1101-1119. Abstract [BC] [NH] [NP] [To]

Uribe, R.A., Nakamura, K., Indacochea, A., Pacheco, A.S., Hooker, Y., Schrödl, M.(2013) A review on the diversity and distribution of opisthobranch gastropods from Peru, with the addition of three new records: (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) Spixiana, 36 (1), pp. 43-60. PDF [R] [NH]

Crocetta, F., Zibrowius, H., Bitar, G., Templado, J., Oliverio, M.(2013) Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – I: The opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Lebanon Mediterranean Marine Science, 14 (2), pp. 403-408. Abstract [NH] [Gr]

Takano, T., Hirano, Y.M., Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.J., Watano, Y. (2013) Taxonomic clarification in the genus Elysia (Gastropoda: Sacoglossa): E. atroviridis and E. setoensis American Malacological Bulletin, 31 (1), pp. 25-37. PDF [NH] [R] [At] [Se]

Costa, J., Giménez-Casalduero, F., Melo, R., Jesus, B. (2012) Colour morphotypes of Elysia timida (sacoglossa, gastropoda) are determined by light acclimation in food algae Aquatic Biology, 17 (1), pp. 81-89. PDF [F] [NH] [Ti]

Sanvicente-Añorve, L., Solís-Weiss, V., Ortigosa, J., Hermoso-Salazar, M., Lemus-Santana, E. (2012) Opisthobranch fauna from the national park arrecife alacranes,southern Gulf of Mexico.  Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 53 (4), pp. 447-460. PDF [NH] [Cr] [Pa] [Su] [Tu]

Vendetti, J.E., Trowbridge, C.D., Krug, P.J. (2012) Poecilogony and population genetic structure in Elysia pusilla (Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa), and reproductive data for five sacoglossans that express dimorphisms in larval development Integrative and Comparative Biology, 52 (1), pp. 138-150. PDF [NH] [Pu]

Carmona, L., Malaquias, M.A.E., Gosliner, T.M., Pola, M., Cervera, J.L. (2011) Amphi-Atlantic distributions and cryptic species in Sacoglossan sea slugs. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77 (4), pp. 401-412. PDF [NH] [Ti]

Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.M., Hirano, Y.J. (2011) Inventory of Japanese sacoglossan opisthobranchs: Historical review, current records, and unresolved issues. American Malacological Bulletin, 29 (1-2), pp. 1-22. Abstract [NH] [R]

Swennen, C. (2011) Large mangrove-dwelling Elysia species in Asia, with descriptions of two new species (Gastropoda: Opistobranchia: Sacoglossa). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 59 (1), pp. 29-37. PDF  [NH] [Ba] [Be] [Le] [Si]

Rumpho, M.E., Pelletreau, K.N., Moustafa, A., Bhattacharya, D. (2011) The making of a photosynthetic animal. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214 (2), pp. 303-311. PDF [HT] [K] [NH] [Ch]

Wägele, H., Stemmer, K., Burghardt, I., Händeler, K. (2010) Two new sacoglossan sea slug species (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda): Ercolania annelyleorum sp. nov. (Limapontioidea) and Elysia asbecki sp. nov. (Plakobranchoidea), with notes on anatomy, histology and biology. Zootaxa, (2676), pp. 1-28. [NH] [As]

Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.J., Hirano, Y.M. (2010) Sacoglossan opisthobranchs on Northwestern Pacific Shores: Stiliger berghi Baba, 1937, and Elysia sp. on filamentous red algae. Veliger, 51 (1-2), pp. 43-62. PDF [F] [NH] [Vi]

Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.M., Hirano, Y.J., Sudo, K., Shimadu, Y., Watanabe, T., Yorifuji, M., Maeda, T., Anetai, Y., Kumagai, K. (2010) Subtropical sacoglossans in okinawa.  At “special risk” or “predictably rare”? American Malacological Bulletin, 28 (2), pp. 167-181. PDF [NH] [Tr]

Allen, R.M., Krug, P.J., Marshall, D.J. (2009) Larval size in Elysia stylifera is determined by extra-embryonic provisioning but not egg size. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 389, pp. 127-137. PDF [NH] [St]

Burfeind, D.D., Tibbetts, I.R., Udy, J.W. (2009) Grazing rates of Elysia tomentosa on native and introduced Caulerpa taxifolia. Hydrobiologia, 632 (1), pp. 355-358. PDF [BC] [F] [NH] [To]

Krug, P.J. (2009) Not My “Type”: Larval dispersal dimorphisms and bet-hedging in opisthobranch life histories. Biological Bulletin, 216 (3), pp. 355-372. PDF [NH] [Co] [Cr] [Pp] [Pr] [Su] [Tu] [Zu]

Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.M., Hirano, Y.J. (2009) Interaction webs of marine specialist herbivores on japanese shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89 (2), pp. 277-286. PDF [NH] [Se] [Tr]

Jagtap, T.G., Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S., Savant, S.B., Kulkarni, V.A., Ansari, Z.A. (2009) Elysia bangtawaensis Swennen (Nudibranch) from the mangrove habitat of Mandovi estuary, Goa (central west coast), India. Current Science, 96 (1), pp. 30-33. PDF [NH] [Ba]

Trowbridge, C.D., Little, C., Stirling, P., Farnham, W.F. (2008) Sacoglossan gastropods on native and introduced hosts in Lough Hyne, Ireland: Larval retention and population asynchrony? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88 (4), pp. 771-782. PDF [F] [NH] [Vi]

Bertsch, H. (2008) Ten-year basleine study of annual variation in the Opisthobranch (Mollusca: Gastropoda) populations at Bahia de los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico. in Bahia del los Angeles: Recursos Naturales y Communidad. Linea Base 2007. SEMARNAT, Protonatura Noroeste, SDNHM & Instituto Nacinal de Ecologia de Mexico pp. 319-338. [English translation without figures] [NH] [Di]

Schmitt, V., Anthes, N., Michiels, N.K. (2007) Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa): Hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity. Frontiers in Zoology, 4, art. no. 17. [B] PDF [BN] [NH] [Ti]

Pierce, S.K., Curtis, N.E., Massey, S.E., Bass, A.L., Karl, S.A., Finney, C.M. (2006) A morphological and molecular comparison between Elysia crispata and a new species of kleptoplastic sacoglossan sea slug (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the Florida Keys, USA.  Molluscan Research, 26 (1), pp. 23-38. Abstract [F] [K] [NH] [Cr] [Cl]

Albano, M., Pon, J.S., Obenat, S. (2006) Macrobenthos associated with Phyllochaetopterus socialis Claparède, 1870 aggregates in Mar del Plata harbour, Argentina [Macrozoobentos asociado a los agregados de Phyllochaetopterus socialis Claparède, 1870 en el puerto de Mar del Plata, Argentina]. Investigaciones Marinas, 34 (2), pp. 197-203. PDF (Spanish) [F] [NH] [Pa]

Cruz-Rivera, E., Paul, V.J. (2006) Feeding by coral reef mesograzers: Algae or cyanobacteria? Coral Reefs, 25 (4), pp. 617-627. Abstract [F] [NH] [Or] [Ru]

González-Wangüemert, M., Giménez-Casalduero, F., Pérez-Ruzafa, A. (2006) Genetic differentiation of Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) populations in the Southwest Mediterranean and Mar Menor coastal lagoon. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 34 (6), pp. 514-527. Abstract [NH] [Ti]

Marín, A., Ros, J. (2004) Chemical defenses in Sacoglossan Opisthobranchs: Taxonomic trends and evolutive implications [Defensas químicas en los opistobranquios sacoglosos: Tendencias taxonómicas e implicaciones evolutivas]. Scientia Marina, 68 (SUPPL 1), pp. 227-241. PDF [NH] [NP] [Ti] [Vi]

Trowbridge, C.D. (2004) Emerging associations on marine rocky shores: Specialist herbivores on introduced macroalgae. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73 (2), pp. 294-308. PDF [NH] [Vi]

Mondy, W.L., Pierce, S.K. (2003) Apoptotic-like morphology is associated with annual synchronized death in kleptoplastic sea slugs (Elysia chlorotica). Invertebrate Biology, 122 (2), pp. 126-137. Abstract [K] [NH] [Ch]

Giménez-Casalduero, F., Muniain, C., García-Charton, J.A. (2002) Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia): Relationship and feeding deterrence to a potential predator on the south-western Mediterranean coast. Marine Biology, 141 (6), pp. 1051-1057. PDF [NH] [NP] [Ti]

Trowbridge, C.D. (2002) Local elimination of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides: Indirect evidence of sacoglossan herbivory? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82 (6), pp. 1029-1030. Abstract [NH] [Vi]

Schrödl, M. (2002) Heavy infestation by endoparasitic copepod crustaceans (Poecilostomatoida: Splanchnotrophidae) in Chilean opisthobranch gastropods, with aspects of splanchnotrophid evolution. Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 2 (1), pp. 19-26. PDF [NH] [Pa]

Trowbridge, C.D. (2002) Northeastern Pacific sacoglossan opisthobranchs: Natural history review, bibliography, and prospectus. Veliger, 45 (1), pp. 1-24. Abstract [NH] [He]

Thibaut, T., Meinesz, A., Amade, P., Charrier, S., De Angelis, K., Ierardi, S., Mangialajo, L., Melnick, J., Vidal, V. (2001) Elysia subornata (Mollusca) a potential control agent of the alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81 (3), pp. 497-504. Abstract [BC] [F] [NH] [Su]

Fontana, A., Ciavatta, M.L., D’Souza, L., Mollo, E., Naik, C.G., Parameswaran, P.S., Wahidulla, S., Cimino, G. (2001) Selected chemo-ecological studies of marine opisthobranchs from Indian coasts. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 81 (4), pp. 403-415. PDF [NH] [NP]

Trowbridge, C.D., Todd, C.D. (2001) Host-plant change in marine specialist herbivores: Ascoglossan sea slugs on introduced macroalgae. Ecological Monographs, 71 (2), pp. 219-243. Abstract [BC] [NH] [Vi]

Trowbridge, C.D. (2000) The missing links: Larval and post-larval development of the ascoglossan opisthobranch Elysia viridis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80 (6), pp. 1087-1094. Abstract [K] [NH] [Vi]

Jensen, K.R. (1999) Copulatory behaviour in three shelled and five non-shelled sacoglossans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia), with a discussion of the phylogenetic significance of copulatory behavior. Ophelia, 51 (2), pp. 93-106. PDF [BN] [NH] [Au] [Fi] [Le] [Tr]

Pierce, S.K., Maugel, T.K., Rumpho, M.E., Hanten, J.J., Mondy, W.L. (1999) Annual viral expression in a sea slug population: Life cycle control and symbiotic chloroplast maintenance. Biological Bulletin, 197 (1), pp. 1-6. PDF [K] [NH] [Ch]

Williams, S.I., Walker D.I. (1999) Mesoherbivore-macroalgal interactions: feeding ecology of sacoglossan sea slugs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) and their effects on food algae.  Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 37: 87-128 [F] [NH] [At] [Au] [Ca] [Ch] [Cr] [Di] [Ev] [Ex] [Fi] [Fu] [He] [Ma] [Or] [Pa] [Pu] [Se] [Su] [Ti] [Tu] [Vi] Excellent review of food sources

Trowbridge, C.D. (1998) Stenophagous, herbivorous sea slugs attack desiccation-prone, green algal hosts (Codium spp.): Indirect evidence of prey-stress models (PSMs)? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 230 (1), pp. 31-53. Abstract [F] [NH] [Vi]

Muniain, C., Ortea, J. (1997) First record of a sacoglossan (= Ascoglossan, Opisthobranchia) from Patagonia (Argentina): Description of a new species of genus , 1818. Veliger, 40 (1), pp. 29-37. Scanned JStor version [NH] [Pa]

Carlini, D.B., Regan, J.D. (1995) Photolyase activities of Elysia tuca, Bursatella leachii, and Haminaea antillarum (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 189 (1-2), pp. 219-232. Abstract [NH] [K] [Tu]

Jensen, K.R. (1993) Morphological adaptations and plasticity of radular teeth of the Sacoglossa (= Ascoglossa) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in relation to their food plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 48 (2), pp. 135-155. Abstract [F] [NH] [Vi]

Jensen, K.R. (1992) Anatomy of some indo-pacific elysiidae (opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa (=ascoglossa)), with a discussion of the generic division and phylogeny. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 58 (3), pp. 257-296. Abstract [NH] [R]

Jensen, K.R. (1993) Morphological adaptations and plasticity of radular teeth of the Sacoglossa (= Ascoglossa) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in relation to their food plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 48 (2), pp. 135-155. Abstract [F] [NH] [Vi]

Jensen, K.R. (1992) Anatomy of some indo-pacific elysiidae (opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa (=ascoglossa)), with a discussion of the generic division and phylogeny. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 58 (3), pp. 257-296. Abstract [NH] [R]

Theisen, B.F., Jensen, K.R. (1991) Genetic variation in six species of sacoglossan opisthobranchs. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57 (2), pp. 267-275. Abstract  [NH] [Vi]

Hay, M.E., Pawlik, J.R., Duffy, E., Fenical, W. (1989) Use of ingested algal diterpenoids by Elysia halimedae Macnae (Opisthobranchia : Ascoglossa) as antipredator defenses. Oecologoa 81:418-427 [F] [NH] [NP] [Pu]

Thompson, T.E., Jarman, G.M. (1989) Nutrition of Tridachia crispata (Mörch) (sacoglossa). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 55 (2), pp. 239-244. Abstract [F] [NH] [Cr]

Brandley, B.K. (1984) Aspects of the ecology and physiology of Elysia cf. furvacauda ( Mollusca: Sacoglossa). Bulletin of Marine Science, 34 (2), pp. 207-219. Abstract [F] [K] [NH] [Fu]

Jensen, K., Clark, K.B. (1983) Annotated checklist of Florida Ascoglossan Opisthobranchia. Nautilus, 97 pp. 1-12 PDF [NH] [Cr]


Marcus, E. (1980)  Review of Western Atlantic Elysiidae (Opisthobranchia Ascoglossa) with a Description of a New Elysia Species.  Bulletin of Marine Science 30 (1) pp. 54-79. Abstract [NH] [Ha] [Mc] [Pa]

du Bois-Reymond Marcus, E. (1972) Notes on some Opisthobranch gastropods from the Chesapeake Bay.  Chesapeake Science 13 (4), pp 300-317. JStor PDF [NH] [Ch] [Ca]

Kress, A. (1972) Veränderungen der Eikapselvolumina während der entwicklung verschiedener Opisthobranchier-Arten (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Marine Biology, 16 (3), pp. 236-252. Abstract [NH] [Vi]

Pfitzenmeyer, H.T. (1960) Notes on the nudibranch, Elysia chlorotica, from Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.  Chesapeake Science 1, pp 114-115.  PDF [NH] [Ch]

Morch, O.A.L (1863) Contributions a la faune malacologique des Antilles danoises. Journal de Conchyliologie 11 pp. 21-43 [NH] [Cr]

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