Elysia timida


Photo: Parent Gery; Wikimedia Commons

Description: Small (~20 mm) species, with triangular parapodia.  The body is largely white, especially along the lateral edges of the parapodia, and has irregularly distributed red spots.  Chloroplasts are located medially on the parapodia.

Distribution: Mediterranean

Food plants: Acetabularia, Cladophora (Marin and Ros, 1993)

Kleptoplasty: long-term

Development: Lecithotrophic or direct (Marin and Ros, 1993)

Scientific Literature

Rauch, C., Christa, G., de Vries, J., Woehle, C., Gould, S.B. (2017) Mitochondrial Genome Assemblies of Elysia timida and Elysia cornigera and the Response of Mitochondrion-Associated Metabolism during Starvation. Genome Biology And Evolution 7: 1873-1879 [Co] [Ti]

Laetz, E.M.J., Ruhr, P.T., Bartolomaeus, T., Preisfeld, A., Wagele, H. (2017) Examining the retention of functional kleptoplasts and digestive activity in sacoglossan sea slugs. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 17: 87-99 [Ti] [Vi]

Laetz, E.M.J., Moris, V.C., Moritz, L., Haubrich, A.N., Wagele, H. (2017) Photosynthate accumulation in solar-powered sea slugs – starving slugs survive due to accumulated starch reserves. Frontiers In Zoology 14: 4 [Ti]

Pierce, S.K., Curtis, N.E., Middlebrooks, M.L. (2015) Sacoglossan sea slugs make routine use of photosynthesis by a variety of species-specific adaptations. Invert. Biol. 134:103-115 [HT] [Ti] [Vi]

Schmitt, V., Händeler, K., Gunkel, S., Escande, M.-L., Menzel, D., Gould, S.B., Martin, W.F., Wägele, H. (2014) Chloroplast incorporation and long-term photosynthetic performance through the life cycle in laboratory cultures of Elysia timida (sacoglossa, heterobranchia). Frontiers in Zoology, 11 (1), art. no. 5, . Abstract PDF [AQ] [F] [K] [Ti]

Christa, G., Zimorski, V., Woehle, C., Tielens, A.G.M., Wägele, H., Martin, W.F., Gould, S.B. (2013) Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281 (1774), art. no. 20132493. Abstract [K] [Ti] [contains phylogenetic analysis of Plakobranchia]

Martin, R., Walther, P., Tomaschko, K.-H. (2013) Phagocytosis of algal chloroplasts by digestive gland cells in the photosynthesis-capable slug Elysia timida (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa). Zoomorphology, 132 (3), pp. 253-259. Abstract [K] [Ti]

Costa, J., Giménez-Casalduero, F., Melo, R., Jesus, B. (2012) Colour morphotypes of Elysia timida (sacoglossa, gastropoda) are determined by light acclimation in food algae Aquatic Biology, 17 (1), pp. 81-89. PDF [F] [NH] [Ti]

Carmona, L., Malaquias, M.A.E., Gosliner, T.M., Pola, M., Cervera, J.L. (2011) Amphi-Atlantic distributions and cryptic species in Sacoglossan sea slugs. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77 (4), pp. 401-412. PDF [NH] [Ti]

Giménez-Casalduero, F., Muniain, C., González-Wangüemert, M., Garrote-Moreno, A. (2011) Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) three decades of research. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 34 (1), pp. 217-227. [R] [Ti]

Schmitt, V., Wägele, H. (2011) Behavioral adaptations in relation to long-term retention of endosymbiotic chloroplasts in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa). Thalassas, 27 (2), pp. 225-238. PDF [BN] [K] [Ti]

Wägele, H., Deusch, O., Händeler, K., Martin, R., Schmitt, V., Christa, G., Pinzger, B., Gould, S.B., Dagan, T., Klussmann-Kolb, A., Martin, W. (2011) Transcriptomic evidence that longevity of acquired plastids in the photosynthetic slugs Elysia timida and Plakobranchus ocellatus does not entail lateral transfer of algal nuclear genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28 (1), pp. 699-706. PDF [HT] [K] [Ti]

Casalduero, F.G., Muniain, C. (2008) The role of kleptoplasts in the survival rates of Elysia timida (Risso, 1818): (Sacoglossa: Opisthobranchia) during periods of food shortage. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 357 (2), pp. 181-187. PDF [K] [Ti]

Schmitt, V., Anthes, N., Michiels, N.K. (2007) Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa): Hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity. Frontiers in Zoology, 4, art. no. 17. [B] PDF [BN] [NH] [Ti]

Evertsen, J., Burghardt, I., Johnsen, G., Wägele, H. (2007) Retention of functional chloroplasts in some sacoglossans from the indo-pacific and Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 151 (6), pp. 2159-2166. PDF [K] [Pu] [Ti] [To]

Giménez Casalduero, F., Muniain, C. (2006) Photosynthetic activity of the solar-powered lagoon mollusc Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). Symbiosis, 41 (3), pp. 151-158. PDF [K] [Ti]

González-Wangüemert, M., Giménez-Casalduero, F., Pérez-Ruzafa, A. (2006) Genetic differentiation of Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) populations in the Southwest Mediterranean and Mar Menor coastal lagoon. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 34 (6), pp. 514-527. Abstract [NH] [Ti]

Marín, A., Ros, J. (2004) Chemical defenses in Sacoglossan Opisthobranchs: Taxonomic trends and evolutive implications [Defensas químicas en los opistobranquios sacoglosos: Tendencias taxonómicas e implicaciones evolutivas]. Scientia Marina, 68 (SUPPL 1), pp. 227-241. PDF [NH] [NP] [Ti] [Vi]

Giménez-Casalduero, F., Muniain, C., García-Charton, J.A. (2002) Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia): Relationship and feeding deterrence to a potential predator on the south-western Mediterranean coast. Marine Biology, 141 (6), pp. 1051-1057. PDF [NH] [NP] [Ti]

Williams, S.I., Walker D.I. (1999) Mesoherbivore-macroalgal interactions: feeding ecology of sacoglossan sea slugs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) and their effects on food algae.  Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 37: 87-128 [At] [Au] [Ca] [Ev] [Ex] [Fi] [Fu] [He] [Ma] [Or] [Se] [Su] [Ti] [Tu] [Vi] Excellent review of food sources

Marin, A. and Ros, J. (1993) Ultrastructural and Ecological Aspects of the Development of Chloroplast Retention in the Sacoglossan Gastropod Elysia timida. Journal of Molluscan Studies 59: 95-104 [NH] [K] [Ti]

Rahat, M., Monelise, E.B. (1979) Photobiology of the chloroplast hosting mollusc Elysia timida. Journal of Experimental Biology 79, pp. 225-233.  PDF [BN] [K] [Ti]

Risso, A. (1818). Memoire. Sur quelques Gasteropodes nouveaux, Nudibranches et Tectibranches observes dans la Mer de Nice. J. Physiol., Paris 87, pp. 368-377.


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